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Contents in Honey
 

 

Carbohydrates
Unsurprisingly, these comprise the major portion of honey - about 82%. The carbohydrates present are the monosaccharides fructose (38.2%) and glucose (31%); and disaccharides (~9%) sucrose, maltose, isomaltose, maltulose, turanose and kojibiose. There are also some oligosaccharides present (4.2%), including erlose, theanderose and panose, formed from incomplete breakdown of the higher saccharides present in nectar and honeydew.

Proteins and Amino Acids
Honey contains a number of enzymes, including invertase, which converts sucrose to glucose and fructose; amylase, which breaks starch down into smaller units; glucose oxidase, which converts glucose to gluconolactone, which in turn yields gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide; catalase, which breaks down the peroxide formed by glucose oxidase to water and oxygen; and acid phosphorylase, which removes inorganic phosphate from organic phosphates. Honey also contains eighteen free amino acids, of which the most abundant is proline.

Vitamins, Minerals and Antioxidants
Honey contains trace amounts of the B vitamins riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, pantothenic acid and vitamin B6. It also contains ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and the minerals calcium, iron, zinc, potassium, phosphorous, magnesium, selenium, chromium and manganese. The main group of antioxidants in honey are the flavonoids, of which one, pinocembrin, is unique to honey and bee propolis. Ascorbic acid, catalase and selenium are also antioxidants. Generally speaking, the darker the honey, the greater its antioxidising properties.

Other compounds
Honey also contains organic acids such as acetic, butanoic, formic, citric, succinic, lactic, malic, pyroglutamic and gluconic acids, and a number of aromatic acids. The main acid present is gluconic acid, formed in the breakdown of glucose by glucose oxidase. Honey also contains hydroxymethylfurfural, a natural product of the breakdown of simple sugars below pH 5.

 

Typical honey analysis
Fructose
 
38.2%
Glucose
31.3%
Maltose
7.1%
Sucrose
1.3%
Water
17.4%
Higher sugars
1.5%
Ash
0.2%
Other/undetermined
3.2%

 

Its glycemic index ranges from 31 to 78, depending on the variety.Honey has a density of about 1.36 kilograms per litre (36% denser than water).

 
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy
  1,272 kJ (304 kcal)
Carbohydrates
82.4 g
Sugars
82.12 g
Dietary fiber
0.2 g
Fat
0 g
Protein
0.3 g
Vitamins
Riboflavin (B2)
  0.038 mg
Niacin (B3)
0.121 mg
Pantothenic acid(B5)
0.068 mg
Vitamin B6
0.024 mg
Folate (B9)
2 μg
Vitamin C
0.5 mg
Trace metals
Calcium
  6 mg
Iron
0.42 mg
Magnesium
2 mg
Phosphorus
4 mg
Potassium
52mg
Sodium
4 mg
Zinc
0.22 mg
Other constituents
Water   17.10 g
Shown is for 100 g, roughly 5 tbsp.
Units
μg = micrograms
mg = milligrams
IU = International units